283. London, British Library, Royal 2. A. xx Private prayer book

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A. N. Doane


283. London, British Library, Royal 2. A. xx
Private prayer book
[Ker 248, Gneuss 450, Lowe 2.215]

HISTORY: Private book of prayers and healing. Traditionally dated to 8c but Morrish (1988: 519) revises the date to 818-830 to correspond to the known date of the "Book of Cerne" (Cambridge, University Library, Ll. 1.10), with which it has important affinities. Owned by the antiquarian and royalist John Theyer (1597-1673), whose large manuscript collection (over 800 volumes) was dispersed after his death; about 300 volumes were purchased by Charles II. Ker identifies the manuscript with "Precationes quredam charactere saxonico 4to" in Patrick Young's catalogue of Wor­ cester Cathedral manuscripts. Lowe suggests that it came from the same library as British Library, Harley 7653, which bears similar gloss-marks (see also Ker, Cat., 315).

CODICOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION: [iii] + 52 + [iv]. Ff. 1 and 52 are old flyleaves, probably of 12c. F. 1 was closely ruled for double columns and is now turned sideways. Leaves measure 228 x 165 mm., irregularly trimmed. Writing area 180 x 115 mm. Irregular ruling after folding, double bounding lines, pricked in inner and outer margins. F. 1 is considerably darkened by exposure and water damage, the latter extending to f. 7. Elegant hybrid Insular majuscule/minuscule and fine Anglo-Irish decorated and colored capitals. Colors are restricted to delicate pale yellow and green. Minuscule titles in silver. The opening "Liber" on f. 2r is in gold and silver outlined in black, echoing the opening of a deluxe Gospel book. The main writing is in a strong black ink, with the glosses mostly in brown, and some in black. Warren (1895: 97) identifies three distinctive main hands, the first on ff. 2-12r, the second on ff. 12v-38, 41-45, the third on ff. 39-40, 46-51 (third begins at 45v/15). Numerous OE glosses (see below) as well as Latin collects in the same hand as OE glosses added in margins of ff. 3v, 7v, 10v, llv, 12v, 13v, 14v, 16r, 16v, 23v, 30v, 39v, 41v, 42v, 43v, 44v (see Warren 1895: 99 for incipits). Ker dates the gloss hand, which is very distinctive, to early 10c; the dialect of the glosses is Mercian (Zupitza 1889). Writing on f. 26v, bottom, and marginal additions on ff. 37v and 38v, are in different hand. On f. 11v the main gloss hand has entered the word "cotidianum" over a large erasure, probably of "supersubstanialem." In ultraviolet light a "b" is visible after the "m" of "cotidianum," and perhaps an "n" four spaces to the left. The gloss has "deghweamlice." This has been noted by Theyer, who writes an emotional note on the execution of Charles I at this place and enters the date 15 July 1649, as well as several shorter notes else­ where.

COLLATION: I8 (ff. 2-9), II8 (8 gone) (ff. 10-16), III8 (ff. 17-24), IV8
(6 gone after f. 29) (ff. 25-31), V6 (32-37), VJ8 (ff. 2 and 7 halfsheets)
(ff. 38-45), VII6 (ff. 46-51).
[Note: A slip of coarser parchment 50 mm. high is bound into quire IV after f. 29.]

CONTENTS: (The Latin texts, minus glosses and additions, are printed by Kuypers 1902: 199-225; detailed lists of contents given by Warner and Gilson 1921: 97-102, Warren 1895: 97-102, less accurately by Birch 1889: 102-13, who prints many of the texts.)
1. ff. 2r-11v/9 Gospel lessons, with often nearly illegible rubrics (a passage that continues to the next page is followed by -)
f. 2r Matt. 1.1, 1,18-19, 28.16-20 -
f. 2v Mark 1.1-3, 16.15-20 -
f. 3r Luke 1.56 -
f. 3v Luke 24.48-53
f. 4r John 1.1-14~
f. 4v John 3.16-17~
f. Sr John 14.2-4, 14.6, 15.12-16 ~
ff. 5v-6v John 16.33-17.14
f. 7r-8r Matt. 4.23-24, 8.1-17~
f. 8v Matt. 8.24-27 ~
ff. 9r-10r Matt. 9.1-2, 9.18-33
f. 10v Matt. 9.36-10-1, 12.46-50 ~
f. llrv/9 Matt. 16.13-19
2. ff. 11v/10-16r Liturgical prayers and canticles, many with OE contin­ uous interlinear glosses:
f. llv/10 Oratio d(o)m(ini)ca 'Pater noster qui es in caelis'.
f. 12r/2 symbulu<m> apos(tolorum) 'Credo in d<eu>m pattern I omni­ potentem'.

f. 12r/15 'IN nomine patris et filii et sp<iritu>s s<an>c<t>i'.
f. 12r/16 Rufinus/Eusebius "Historia Ecclesiastica" (1.13 = PG 20.123) Incipit epistola saluatoris d<o>m<ini> n<ost>r<i> | ie<s>u chr<ist>i ad abagaru<m> rege<m> qua<m> d<omi>n<u>s ma[nu] | scripsit et dixit || 'Beatus es qui me n<on> uidisti et credidisti | in me'.
f. 13r/8 Prayer: 'D<eu>s omnipotens et d<omi>n<u>s n<oste>r ie<su>s chr<istu>s'.
f. 13r/11 Prayer: 'Benedicat me d<omi>n<u>s et custodiat me'.
f. 13r/15 Benediction: 'Sanat te d<eu>s pater omnipotens qui te | creauit'.
f. 13v/2 Magnificat: Hymnus s<an>c<t>re marire.
f. 14r-14v/7 Benedictus: Cant[icum] Zacharias.
ff. 14v/8-16r Canticum trium puerorum: 'Benedictus es d<omi>ne' (= Dan. 3.52-90).
[OE interlinear continuous glosses to Pater Noster (ff. llv/11-12r/1); Creed (f. 12r/2-5); 'Beatus es' (partial) (f. 12v/l); 'Deus omnipotens' (f. 13r/7-13); Magnificat (f. 13v); Benedictus (ff. 14r-14v/7); 'Bene­ dicite omnia opera' (partial) (ff. 15r/6-14); 'Hos omnes inuocabo' (partial) (f. 19r/1-3). The hand is the same as those of the Latin collects (OE ed. Zupitza 1889: 60-64). Latin note at bottom off. 14r: 'Oculi nostri ad te d<omi>ne semp<er> intendant ut auxilium tuum. ...']
3. f. 16v Charm for stopping bleeding: 'Riuos cruoris torridi . contacta uestis | obstruit' [the opening taken from the same text as item 30] (Barb 1968: "London A").
4. f. 17rv Oratio [Sancti Hugbaldi abbatis] | 'INprimis obsecro supplex
obnixis precibus' (title now mostly illegible; text occurs also in "Book ofCerne" [Cambridge, University Library, Ll.1.10], f. 16rv).
5. ff. 18r-19v/12 Prayer: 'S<an>c<t>am ergo unitatem trinitatis .. . ut in
omnibus | protectionis tuae muniamur auxilio per | chr(iste)m d<o­ mi>n<u>m'. [In the "Sanctus," f. 18v/7-10, a transliterated Greek text is interlined; OE gloss, f. 19r/1; text is annotated by Theyer.]
6. ff. 19v/12-20r/7 deprecatio | 'Benedictio d<e>i patris cum angelis suis sit | super me'.
7. f. 20r/7-20v/17 Oratio | s<an>c<t>a 'Sp<iritu>m mihi d<omi>ne tuae caritatis infunde'
8. ff. 20v/18-2lv Prayer: 'S<an>c<t>a trinitas una diuinitas semper auxiliare
me d<omi>ne d<eu>s meus' [me corr. to mihi].
9. f. 22rv Ora(tio) matutina | 'Mane cum surrexero intende ad me d<omi>ne | et guberna omnes actus meos'.
10. ff. 23r-24r Excerpt from Augustine, "Soliloquies" 1.1 (PL 32.869- 72): Orat<io> s<an>c<t>i augustini episc<opi> | 'D<eu>s uniuersitatis conditor presta | mihi primum ut te bene rogem'; [explicit:] 'atque habitatorem beatissi |mi regni tui', followed by a four line coda, 'S<an>c<t>a trinitas una diuinitas' (two OE glosses at f. 24r/6, pr. Zupitza 1889; Theyer notes the source, f. 23r, top).
11. f. 24v Oratio s<an>c<t>i augustini epis<copi> | 'D<OMI>Ne ie<s>u chr<ist>i qui de hoc mundo transisti | ad patrem'.
12. f. 25r/1-15 Rhythmical prayer: 'Ambulemus in prosperis huius diei luminis I in uirtute altissimi' (cf. Birch 1889: 105-6).
13. f. 25r/16-25v oratio milite in templo (= Luke 15.18-19, 18.13).
14. ff. 26r-27r/2 A Litany translated from a Greek litany like the one in British Library, Cotton Galba A. xviii; ends with invocation ofTrinity, comparable to ending of item 10. Written in two columns. Anglo­ Caroline hand adds invocation ofrelics at bottom off. 26v (ed. La­ pidge 1991: 212-13, see also pp. 71, 75).
15. ff. 27r/3-28r 'Benedictus d<omi>n<u>s et pater d<omi>ni nostri ie<s>u | chr<ist>i qui est semper benedicendus'; [explicit:] 'eum ut misericordiam eius consequi | mereamur in saecula saeculorum amen'. Followed by a benediction (f. 28r/17-19).
16. f. 28r "Gloria": HYMNUS angelicus 'gloria i<n> excelsis d<e>o', with transliteration of the Greek interlined, and "Creed of St. Damasus": fides catholica 'Credimus in unum d<eu>m' (see Warner and Gilson 1921: 34 on source of creed).
17. f. 28v Prayer: 'D<omi>ne d<eu>s omn<i>p<otens> pater qui es omnium rerum I creator'.
18. ff. 29r-38v Alphabetical series of prayers with added OE interlined titles relating each section to the life of Christ (large decorated capitals introduce each section; longer sections have intermediate large decorated capitals):
f. 29r/1 'Altus auctor omnium creaturarum' ("B" occurs after "E," f. 30v/1).
f. 29v/1 'Cunctis uia es ad uitam uolentibus | remeare'.
f. 29v/15 'D<omi>ne d<eu>s meus qui es fons omnis innocentiae'.
[On recto ofadded slip after f. 29 (foliated 29*) is the ending of the 'E'-prayer left unfinished at the bottom off. 30r, four lines of Insular minuscule, apparently by the main scribe; then the "Agnus Dei" in a Greek transliteration, 'O amnos tu theu .. .', in of the litany, item 14, f. 26v/17b-20b).]
ff. 30r/13-f. 29*v 'Ego serous tuus ie<s>u fili magni d<e>i'.
f. 30v/1 'Beata benedicta incarnataque dementia'.
f. 3lr/1 'Fidelium omnium aequisimus iudex'.
f. 31r/10 'Gentium sola uitae exspectatio'.
f. 31v/5 'Humilis excelsa s<an>c<t>a singliarisque pietas'.
f. 32r/1 'Ie<s>u d<omi>ne d<eu>s uia uita ac ueritas caelestis'.
f. 32r/14 'Karitatis auctor castatis doctor'.
f. 32v/10 'Lux lucis inluminans mundum et fons | luminis'.
f. 33r/5 'Magister bone d<eu>s meus d<eu>s exercituu<m>'.
f. 33v/1 'Nomen tibi est emmanuhel noui testa/menti'.
f. 33v/ll Eight-line metrical prayer, written in alternate red and black (no OE title): 'Dextera nos saluos <con>seruit in aeuum'.
f. 34r/1 'O unigenitus d<e>i filius . qui mihi murus | es inexpugnabilis'.
f. 34v/l 'Princeps pacis patientiae doctor'.
f. 34v/15 'Qyaeso te p<re>clare clementissime d<eu>s'.
f. 35r/9 'Rex regum et d<omi>n<u>s dominantium'. ["Q” and "R" occur in Harley 2965, ff. 29v-30r.]
f. 35v/3 'S<an>c<t>e saluator sanitas pereuntium'.
f. 36r/2 'Te fortissime magne potens d<omi>ne qui solus | sempiternam uictoriam'.
f. 36v/5 'Verus largitor uitae perpetuae'.
f. 37r/1 'Xr<ist>e qui es uita morientium et salus | infirmantium'.
f. 37v/l 'Ymnorum solus dignus laudi lbus d<eu>s'. [Gloss hand has added a small "h" before the initial "Y".]
f. -38r/8 'Zelotis sempiterne d<eu>s qui és | discretor cogitationum cordis'.
19. f. 39rv Prayer in elegiac verse, paraphrasing Ps. 84 (cf. early modern note [not Theyer's?] at top): 'Me similem cineri uentoq<ue> umbrreq<ue> memen | to'.
20. f. 40r/1-14 Metrical creed with nearly illegible title: VER[SUS Cvd de sea trinitate] (title taken from Kuypers 1902: 218; interpreted by Theyer as "Versus cujusde<m> de s<an>c<t>a Trinitate" and by Warner and Gilson (1921) as "Versus Cuthberti" or "Versus Cudradi") 'Mente cana<m> d<omi>no grates laudesq<ue> rependens'.
21. f. 40r/15-40v/3 Confession: 'Peccaui d<omi>ne peccaui coram te'.
22. ff. 40v/3-42r/2 Intercessory prayers: Precatio ad s<an>c<t>am Marian | et | s<an>c(tu)m | Petrvm et | ad ceteros | apo(stolos) (title writ­ ten down right margin): (a) f. 40v/3-5 'Intercede pro me s<an>c<t>a maria'; (b) f. 40v/6-8 'Intercede pro me s<an>c<t>e petre | apostolorum princeps'; (c) f. 40v/9-11 'Intercede pro me peccatore | s<an>c<t>e paule apostole chr<ist>i'; (d) f. 40v/12 'Intercede pro me indigno et reo atque torpente s<an>c<t>e andrea'; <e> f. 41r/1-15 'Intercede p<ro> malis meis s<an>c<t>e iacobe'; (f) f. 41r/16-end 'Angelos archangelos uirtutes principatu | potestates dominationes thronos cherubin'; (g) ff. 41v/1- 42r/2 'Obsecro diuitas bonitas tuae'. [An effaced inscription, probably OE, at top of41r.]
23. ff. 42r/2-45r/3 Ora<tio> Moucan<i> 'D<eu>m patrem d<eu>m filium d<eu>m dep<re>cor sp<iritu>m s<an>c<tu>m | cuius magnitudo inmensa gi(y)ro conplectit<ur>' (on title see Warner and Gilson 1921: 35). Most sections end with "Eloe sabaoth (ia adonai eli eli laba sabacthani)." [In margin off. 44r, gloss hand adds OE note on times ofmoonrise.]
24. f. 45r/3-21 Oratio penitentis 'Gratias ago d<e>o meo q(uod) me miserum peccatore<m>'.
25. f. 45v/1-14 [Oratio] 'Obsecro te ie(su)s chr(istu)s filius d<e>i uiui p<er> cruce<m> | tu( )am' (title illegible, from Kuypers 1902; OE gloss on line 1).
26. f. 45v/15-20 Exorcism, partly in transliterated Greek: 'Eulogumen . patera . caeyo . caeagion . pneuma' (cf. Birch 1889: 109). [Another hand begins with this item.]
27. f. 46r/1-19 Orat<io> s<an>c<t>ae mariae matris d<orni>ni n<ost>ri 'Auxiliatrix esto mihi s<an>c<t>a trinitas exaudi exaud[i] |exaudi me d<omi>ne'. A title at the bottom off. 46r in rustic capitals: IN NO­ MINE D(E)I SVMMI | PAX PATRIS AETERNI LVMINIS SALVS SEMPITERNA, with an added nota referring it to this item (but it more likely goes to the next item).
28. ff. 46v-47v/9 Prayer to God, angel, patriarch, apostles, saints: 'Te deprecor pater s<an>c<t>e ut digneris me |saluare'.
29. ff. 47v/10-49r/17 Oratio s<an>c<t>i augustini 'D<eu>s iustitiae te deprecor . d<eu>s miseri |cordiae'.
30. f. 49r/18-49v Two charms for stopping bleeding, with Greek words and a Greek palindrome (see Daly 1982): 'Crux chr<ist>i ie<s>u d<omi>ni n<ost>ri ingeritur mihi . |Riuos cruoris torridi' (Barb 1968: "London C and D").
31. f. 50rv Hymn: Carmen sedulii de natale d<omi>ni n<ost>ri ie<s>u chr<ist>i arranged alphabetically as 24 distichs, with lines written across the double columns: 'A solis ortus cardine adusq<ue> terrae limite<m>' [leafhas been trimmed along top, losing some writing on the verso; an OE gloss at f. 50r/4] (ed. Huemer 1885: 163, as 4-line stanzas).
32. f. 51rv Another alphabetical verse hymn Per[e]nnis die Sabbati (title at bottom off. 51r), not arranged in clear columns, but having the same verse structure as the preceding; incipit (from Kuypers): 'Alma fulget in c[ae]les[ti] perpes regnum [ciu]itas' (ed. Huemer 1885).
33. f. 52r On flyleafin 12c hand, four? or five? charms: (a) lines 1-5 'In
epheso [ ]ate in monte celion', mentioning Seven Sleepers + (b) lines 7-13 'D<omi>ne ie<s>u chr<ist>e q<u>i', mentioning Seven Sleepers; (c) lines 14-16 'D<omi>ne ie<s>u chr<ist>e uere d<eu>s n(oste)r', mentioning St. Blasius; (d) lines 17-26 "Against bleeding": 'In principio erat uerbum' (Barb 1968: "London B"); <e> lines 27-29 'S<an>c(tu)s cassius'.
Summary of OE glosses: Same hand that glossed no. 2 has added glosses to titles, ff. 29-38, and OE note on moonrise at different seasons, f. 44r. There are many other sporadic OE glosses (ed. Zupitza 1889: 64-66) and a few not noted by Zupitza (see Warner and Gilson 1921: 36, who also note erased inscriptions containing A-S names "iEdulf relteow" ff. 10v, 24v, "Mrere Berhtelm and iElfwynne and Brynhild his dohtor" f.13v).

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