Confluence <p>The SFU International Studies Student Association is proud to have officially re-launched <em>Confluence. </em>We are now officially CLOSED FOR SUBMISSIONS. Learn about our theme "Disruption<em>"</em> <a href="">here</a>. </p> <p>Confluence Vol. 2 "The Death of Democracy" can still be viewed <a href="">here. </a></p> International Studies Student Association en-US Confluence The US-China Trade War <p>This paper explores the causes and effects of the trade war currently undergoing between the US and China. It also explores the impact of the trade war on each country and on a global scale, as well as the consequences of undemocratic leaders on political and economic factors.&nbsp;</p> Beatriz Fernandes Copyright (c) 2020 Beatriz Fernandes 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 1 17 The Creation and Dissolution of Indian Democratic Socialism <p>The following is a comparative analysis of India's political sphere under the leadership styles of first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and daughter, and succesor Indira Gandhi. The essay eludes to the establishment of Indian democracy under Nehru and the authoritarian policies of Gandhi. Although related by blood and raised in the same caste, both influential leaders had polarized ideals of "a successful India." The rise and fall of democracy will be anlayzed through important policies, consititutional amendments, and ideologies surrounding economics, religion and society. Both versions of democratic socialism ultimately determined the legacy each Prime Minister left behind on the world's largest democratic state.&nbsp;</p> Kayla Mudaliar Copyright (c) 2020 Kayla Mudaliar 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 18 36 Clash of Civilizations <p>This essay analysis Samuel Huntington's Clash of Civilizations thesis and argues that the theory did not sustain itself in the post-Cold War period. With the conclusion of the Cold War, Samuel Huntington claims that conflicts will be between civilizations, declaring Islam as the primary challenger to the West. While his theory has sustained itself on some occasions, on most it has failed to live up to its expectations. Contrary to his predictions, the Post-Cold War world has witnessed more intra-civilizational conflicts as compared to inter-civilizational, with Islam fighting within itself. On the other hand, Islam's hostility towards the West has not been significant. In fact, many Muslim countries have begun to adopt Western values, even in the face of various Islamist Organizations. The essay concludes with the assertion that while Huntington's theory had components which warranted attention, the argument had its flaws and deficiencies.</p> Usama Naeem Toor Copyright (c) 2020 Usama Naeem Toor 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 39 54 Partner or Predator? <p>Neo-colonialism has been observed on the African continent since the decolonisation period of the 1960s, however recent accusations of the neo-colonialist behaviour in the new trend in Sino-African relations have shown there is little consensus on the definition of the term. Using a conceptual framework inspired by Kwame Nkrumah’s 1965 work, <em>Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism</em>, this paper analyses Sino-African relations from the perspective of three facets: economic, political, and cultural neo-colonialism. While China has updated the mechanism of neo-colonialism in several ways, such as using non-conditional aid, concessionary loans for infrastructure projects, and South-South cooperation rhetoric, its goals are relatively unchanged from that of the colonial powers of the past, namely obtaining natural resources and creating spheres of influence. As Nkrumah describes, an important mechanism of neo-colonialism is that, unlike colonialism before it, neo-colonialism must contend with the independence of the territories that the neo-colonial powers are attempting to control. By providing marginal improvements to quality of life in Africa in this environment, China has been able to present itself as the ideal alternative to Western aid in order to facilitate, as Nkrumah terms it, a change in masters (Nkrumah).</p> Hannah Christensen Copyright (c) 2020 Hannah Christensen 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 55 75 Pakistan: Between Modernity and Religion <p>Prior to British colonization, there was a general trend by the (Muslim) Mughal Empire to integrate Hindus into the civil and military administrations. They also actively sought to bridge any religious divides and to create a more coherent society through matrimony. However, with the onset of British colonial rule, this generally harmonious existence started to fade away. The British believed that Muslims and Hindus naturally consisted of separate nations. In fear of Hindu domination, began to champion the idea of a separate Muslim majority nation state in north-western and north-eastern India, where Muslims were in the majority. In 1947, with the creation of Pakistan, this became a reality. Pakistan came into existence with the duty of being the Muslim homeland in South Asia.&nbsp;However, in this paper I argue that even though Pakistan was create as a nation for Muslims, it was never an Islamist state, like that of Iran immediately post 1979 Revolution, but instead remained secular. The word secular is often simplified as the separation of church (or whatever religious institution) and state or just wholly misinterpreted. Moreover, secularism is often seen as a pre-requisite to democracy and modernity. Hence, I would like to explore a couple of ideas: one, what secularism really implies; two, the consolidation of democracy and Alfred Stepan’s theory of the “Twin Tolerations”; third, the development of Pakistan’s institutions and its relationship with Islam.</p> Harry Deng Copyright (c) 2020 Harry Deng 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 76 92 The Rise of Populism <p>The aim of this brief is to inform the AMEASA –a coalition of young democrats from Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America- about the rise of populism. According to Judis (2016), populism has emerged in America and has now spread to different parts of the world. Globally, the spread of populism has been a cause of concern. Supporting evidence will be provided from Italy, Philippines and India. This brief will conclude by providing the coalition with strategies that will help in tackling populism.</p> Neelia Radin Mohd Fuad Copyright (c) 2020 Neelia Radin Mohd Fuad 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 94 114 Angered and Empowered: Youth as agents of change across Africa <p>In a continent where youth are by far the largest demographic yet experience unprecedented levels of unemployment, I argue that youth will be the driving force of change across Africa. In fact, I go beyond this to assert that youth already have been a driving force of change across the continent and will continue to drive change as long as they are not satisfied with their available economic opportunities. I also state that the main motive for youth to demand change is a lack of professional opportunities. Lastly, I argue that African youth will be able to create change due to their demographic dominance, as well as their ability to utilize new technologies to their advantage, specifically social media.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Michelle Gomez Copyright (c) 2020 Michelle Gomez 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 115 129 The Paradox of (Neo)liberal Society <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Neoliberalism alone cannot account for the modern crisis of liberalism - expressed through the rise of populist governments, fundamentalist outfits, and worldwide popular protests. This paper posits, in line with Karl Polanyi’s opus, </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Great Transformation </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(1944), that neoliberalism has distilled, rather than produced, these tensions, which are inherent in the liberal social imaginary. The paper will close with projections of an alternative modernity.</span></p> William Duppel Copyright (c) 2020 William Duppel 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 132 151 Fundamental Rights and Indefinite Rule <p>Illiberal democracy in Bolivia and Nicaragua</p> Alexandro Aparicio Copyright (c) 2020 Alexandro Aparicio 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 2 1 152 159