Violence in Hong Kong

How to Cite

CASIS-Vancouver. (2021). Violence in Hong Kong: Criminal, Political or the Work of a VTSM?. The Journal of Intelligence, Conflict, and Warfare, 2(2), 48–55.


This briefing note explores the argument that the alleged July 22nd, 2019, attacks on protesters in Hong Kong were perpetrated by a group that can be classified as a Violent Transnational Social Movement (VTSM). When scrutinized, the alleged acts of violence and observed motivations of the United Bamboo triad, plus their transnational and identity-based nature of operation, suggest that the United Bamboo triad may be a VTSM.
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