The purpose of this briefing note is to examine the escalation to violence of Violent Transnational Social Movements (VTSM), specifically the Black Hebrew Israelites (BHI). The BHI is a more than 100-year-old group that has arguably been in the political background for the past two decades and appears to have escalated from using soft violence tactics to kinetic violence after the Jersey City Deli Shooting. This briefing note primarily focuses on the BHI and their role as a VTSM that uses soft violence and symbolic power as a means to deliver their message. For further information on VTSMs, please visit the Canadian Centre for Identity-Based Conflict.
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